王蔷:核心素养培养对教学设计的再思考

北师大版英语教材教学交流研讨会上,北师大版《小学英语》《初中英语》《高中英语》教材主编、北京师范大学外文学院教授王蔷作了专题报告:英语学科核心素养培养背景下对教学设计的再思考。
王蔷教授首先指出,有关核心素养,有三点需要着重注意:
01核心素养的理念需反复强调,加强认识,不断学习;
02教师如何在课堂教学中实施核心素养的培养;
03教师从何处入手,思考核心素养对实际教学的直接影响。
接下来,王蔷教授介绍并分析了核心素养提出的国际国内背景、英语课程改革新动向、英语学科核心素养的构建、课程内容与教学方式变革,以及对教学设计的再思考。
自经济合作与发展组织(Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development,简称OECD)1997年首次提出核心素养理念,各国都在研究和建构核心素养模型。我国于2014年首次提出核心素养理念,并将于2017年9月开始推进以核心素养为目标的基础教育课程改革。
王蔷教授在介绍了OECD、美国、澳大利亚等国的核心素养建构框架之后指出,从全球范围可以看到核心素养的要素选取均反映了社会经济与科技信息发展的最新要求,强调创新与创造力、信息素养、国际视野、沟通与交流、团队合作、社会参与(责任)及社会贡献、自我规划与管理等素养。表述虽不尽相同,但都指向一些共同的素养,也都是为了适应21世纪的挑战。而对学生创新能力、批判性思维能力、沟通与合作的能力以及社会责任等素养的培养也正是我国基础教育面临的任务和挑战。
王蔷教授指出当前英语课程改革的新动向主要包括三个方面:
1.关注学科育人价值。
英语学科的首要任务是育人,教师需要思考学科价值是什么,如何通过教授这门学科实现育人的目标。
2.关注学生思维发展。
高中英语教学重点之一,是教会学生发现问题、解决问题,培养学生用英语进行思维的能力。
3.关注学科核心素养。
关于英语学科核心素养的构建,主要思考的问题是学生学习英语这门课程应该发展什么样的学科核心素养。过去十几年的课程改革,英语课程提出了综合语言运用能力的学科课程目标,从过去重视语言知识和语言技能的双基目标转向了多元的综合目标,推动以学生发展为本的教育。经过十几年的课程改革,教师的教学理念已经发生了显著的变化,从过去关注学科知识和技能,转向了关注培养学生的综合语言运用能力,也就是要在发展学生语言能力的同时,培养学生的积极情感态度和价值观、良好的跨文化意识和有效的学习策略,这些都成为了英语教学的重要目标。但是课程还存在不少问题。特别是英语课程对学生思维能力的培养重视不够,教师对语境创设不充分,对语篇意义关注不够,对情感态度价值观的培养未能落到实处,以及很少引导学生发展运用英语分析问题和解决问题的能力。而核心素养的建构必然引发我们对课程内容的重新思考和对教学方式的进一步优化,为解决目前课程改革存在的问题提供思路和途径。

、王蔷:核心素养培养对教学设计的再思考

课程内容与教学方式变革
1.学习内容:改变脱离语境的知识学习,将知识学习与技能发展融入主题、语境、语篇和语用之中,促进文化理解和思维品质形成,引导学生学会学习,指向核心素养培养。
2.学习方式:走向整合、关联、发展的课程,实现对语言的深度学习(即语言、文化、思维的融合)。
3.教学方式:融育人目标于教学内容与教学过程之中。
如何整合课程内容?
要理清并抓住主线,将主题引领作为整合的起点。建立六要素(主题、语篇、语言知识、文化知识、语言技能、学习策略)整合的学习活动观。
对教学设计的再思考
教学从知识教学和技能教学转向对学科核心素养的培养。需要教师加深对学科本质和价值的认识;重视对语篇意义的解读;在设计活动时关注内在逻辑和关联,注意提炼和整合内在的知识结构。因此,提高教师的文本解读能力是关键。
从文本解读到活动设计教师还需要思考:
1.创设何种情境?与学生共同解决什么问题?
2.学生需要获取什么信息,建构怎样的知识结构?
3.如何引导学生在解决问题的过程中,学习语言知识,发展语言技能,获得文化体验,汲取文化精华,提升思维品质,运用学习策略,实现创新迁移?
要改变教学方式,教师需要:
1.认真研读和分析文本,梳理语篇主题意义。
2.确保教学设计情境化、问题化、活动化,体现综合性、实践性和关联性的学习过程。
3.在主题意义探究和解决问题的活动中,整合语言知识学习和语言技能发展,体现文化感知和品格塑造,发展思维品质和语言学习能力。
4.从表层学习走向深度学习。
王蔷教授最后总结:
教育要回归原点,关注人的发展;教学要走向服务学生学科核心素养的发展,从意义出发,推动深度学习;研读文本、重视情境、梳理主线、构建结构化知识、关注内化提升、迁移创新,是实现培养学生学科核心素养的重要条件。
作者:王蔷,本文根据王蔷教授在2016年北师大版英语教材教学交流研讨会上的报告整理,编辑杨杉杉。
王蔷教授特别推荐:《21世纪学生发展核心素养研究》,作者林崇德。

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